Archives for October 2012

Introduction to Mechanical Insulation

Piping, Plumbing, Gas

PPGS 1210 – Introduction to Mechanical Insulation

Mechanical Insulation Inspectors Course is now available.

The establishment of a quality assurance certification (QAC) program in BC’s mechanical insulation industry has received increased attention over the last several years. This has been fuelled by three primary issues: 1) contractors minimizing or in some cases totally eliminating insulation where it is required; 2) the use of non-certified materials; and 3) improper installation practices. This course introduces students to the BC Insulation Contractors Association (BCICA) quality assurance certification (QAC) program. Topics include an introduction to the QAC program; insulation materials; construction safety; technical specifications; blueprint and detail drawings; and, an introduction to the inspection and certification process. (1.5 Credits)


Aquatherm Technical Bulletin

Just like other plastic piping on the market Aquatherm piping statements on thermal value and the need to insulate or not, can be confusing, but the one thing we do know is, not using properly installed mechanical insulation on your mechanical systems, will increase your operational cost while contributing to the green house gas (GHG) problem.

Take a look at Aquatherm Technical Bulletin:

It is, therefore, the position of Aquatherm that all piping installations where chilled water is to be carried in the piping or where the surface temperature of the piping is expected to be below the ambient dew point temperature shall be insulated per code.

Of course, there are instances where the insulation thickness can be reduced because of the fact that the PP-R piping is naturally thermally resistant, but those cases need to be evaluated and calculated on an individual basis with the central idea that all chilled water piping needs to be insulated. It also goes without saying that all heated (hot) water systems need to be insulated per code as well.

Bottom line is plastic pipe has only a slightly better thermal value than metal pipe and the only answer is to insulate with mechanical insulation.




There has been some confusion and misleading statements made in the marketplace regarding insulation requirements when using plastic piping materials such as CPVC and PEX in plumbing and hydronic heating applications. The plumbing, mechanical and energy conservation codes base insulation requirements or thermal efficiency on the type of system (e.g. domestic hot and cold water, hot water heating, and service hot water). These requirements apply regardless of the piping material and are requirements to aid against heat loss within the system. Plastic piping does offer some
increased thermal performance over copper tubing, but neither CPVC nor PEX piping can meet the minimum required thermal performance called out in today’s state, local and model codes.

Based on a the basic requirements for thermal performance of piping systems in the ICC Model Codes, the minimum R-value range is from R-2 up to the equivalent of an R-5 based on the pipe size and system. In the following chart we have calculated the corresponding R-value for PEX, CPVC and Copper using the Cylindrical “R” value Calculation formula which confirms that plastic piping without pipe insulation does not meet the energy conservation code requirements mandated by State, Local , and Model codes

Read More……..

Modern Building Services: Clear thinking on insulating plastic pipes

Fig. 1: Theory and practice — since the extra thermal insulation provided by plastic pipes is so small and thermal insulation comes in thickness increments of 5 mm, there is no difference in insulation requirement compared with steel pipes.

Clear thinking on insulating plastic pipes
Published:  December 2004

Although plastic pipes have many benefits, requiring less thermal insulation is not one of them — as we found out from GEOFF WRIGHT.

With the growing use of plastic pipes for HVAC applications comes the feeling that less thermal insulation should be required for pipes carrying hot water. It is obvious that the thermal conductivity of plastic pipes is much less than copper and steel, so less insulation must be needed. Or is it?

Geoff Wright of Kingspan Insulation has the figures. The thermal conductivity of plastic pipes ranges from 0.16 to 0.22 W/m.K, compared with 385 W/m.K for copper and 63 W/m.K for steel. Copper has a thermal conductivity six times greater than steel, but would anyone seriously consider using less insulation on the steel pipe? The thermal conductivity of copper is around 2000 times greater than that of plastic, which is quite a different league.

However, Geoff Wright points out that the thermal conductivity of plastic is still high compared with insulation (0.021 to 0.040 W/m.K) — about six times higher. That means, he explains, that a plastic pipe with a wall thickness of 10 mm is equivalent to a millimetre or two of rigid phenolic insulation. But what about the lower surface temperature of a plastic pipe carrying hot water compared with copper or steel?

Geoff Wright’s response is that the reason a plastic pipe can be touched without undue discomfort is that the hand can carry heat away faster that it is emitted from the plastic wall of the pipe.

Likewise heat removed from the surface of a plastic pipe by radiation and convection reduces its temperature until an equilibrium is achieved.

As soon as insulation is applied, the situation changes and a steady state is achieved with the temperature at the interface between plastic pipe and insulation essentially being the same as that of the liquid in the pipe. Adding to the confusion is that the requirements in both current and proposed Building Regulations are far from clear.

When it comes to actually insulating the pipe, Geoff Wright points out that thermal insulation comes in 5 mm thickness increments, so that the slight insulation effect of the plastic pipe makes no difference to the thickness required.

Kingspan Insulation has calculated the thickness of rigid phenolic insulation required to comply with BS5422:2001 for a range of pipe sizes in both plastic and steel (Fig. 1). This chart is based on an estimated mean temperature of water in the pipe of 50°C, a thermal conductivity of 0.025 W/m.K for the insulation, 0.22 W/m.K for the plastic pipe and 50 W/m.K for the steel pipe.

No case

‘In spite of the better thermal performance of the plastic pipe, there is clearly no case for reducing the amount of insulation needed,’ says Geoff Wright. He adds, ‘Substituting other materials for rigid phenolic insulation would yield a similar graph,’

Since there is effectively no difference in the amount of insulation required on plastic and steel pipes, Geoff Wright warns, ‘Failure to install the insulation thickness specified in BS 5422 is likely to be a contravention of Approved Document L2 of the Building Regulations, which states that this standard is to be used for specifying thermal insulating materials for pipes and ductwork.’

Rather than being concerned with the very small cost savings that could be achieved even if less thermal insulation were permissible, Geoff Wright would like to see a more positive outlook. He says, ‘Quite apart from the legal requirement, there are long-term benefits to be had from the efficient insulation of pipes to reduce energy consumption. This type of whole-life-cost analysis is becoming an increasingly important part of specification. It is short sighted indeed to try to reduce costs now by skimping on long-term cost-effective elements such as insulation.


‘In the long run, this would prove costly for both the end user and the environment and, if the building doesn’t comply, costly for the contractor, since it is far easier to put insulation in place at the outset than to apply it remedially.’

Indeed, he would prefer the small extra thickness of thermal insulation on plastic pipes to be regarded as a bonus in helping to achieve the best possible energy performance for a building.

Geoff Wright is with Kingspan Insulation Ltd, Pembridge, Leominster, Herefordshire HR6 9LA.


Mechanical Insulation and Passive Design Best Practices

The City of North Vancouver are a step ahead when it comes to mechanical insulation
– File: 3760-10-01

Report: Deputy Director, Community Development, September 20, 2012.
Moved by Councillor Keating, seconded by Councillor Buchanan

PURSUANT to the Report of the Deputy Director, Community Development, dated September 20, 2012, entitled “Mechanical Insulation and Passive Design Best Practices”:

THAT staff continue their current practice of encouraging mechanical insulation best practices for all construction projects in the City;

AND THAT mechanical insulation energy efficiency specifications and best practices be included in the City’s tendering and procurement process;

AND THAT revisions to the City’s Sustainable Development Guidelines be endorsed as attached to September 20, 2012 report with explicit encouragement of mechanical insulation and passive design best practices;

AND THAT staff be directed to create a North Shore Passive Design Users Guide as a resource for the development industry as part of the Community Development Department 2013-2014 Work Program, provided that outside funding be secured;

AND THAT the City continue to consider partnership opportunities as they arise in relation to testing new energy efficiency standards and emerging construction practices.


Report:  Deputy Director, Community Development, September 20, 2012.

Attend this Free one-hour webinar on Mechanical Insulation

The Climate Registry is a nonprofit collaboration among North American states, provinces, territories and Native Sovereign Nations that sets consistent and transparent standards to calculate, verify and publicly report greenhouse gas emissions into a single registry. The Registry supports both voluntary and mandatory reporting programs and provides comprehensive, accurate data to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

Attend this one-hour webinar, offered at no cost, to learn simple on-line tools that help you evaluate mechanical insulation projects. Learn how to use the free Mechanical Insulation Design Guide (MIDG), which gives you an instant snapshot of the benefits of proposed mechanical insulation projects, including:
• Energy savings
• Payback periods, rate of return and net present value
• Reductions in emissions and greenhouse gases

MIDG also helps you in the design, selection, specification, installation and maintenance of mechanical insulation.

Attend if you want to:
• Identify your most cost-effective mechanical insulation projects
• Calculate the benefits of these projects before you begin
• Learn the benefits of MIDG through demonstrations, case studies and hands-on training